Business Plan

Works Cited

As with any research paper, it is important to give credit for the resources you use when writing your paper. Doing a good job citing sources has a number of advantages.

  1. High Schools and Colleges require citing resources. Failure to do so can lead to expulsion
  2. In the business world, you can be sued or fined for using someone else materials without giving credit
  3. It makes you look credible because your information is based on researched material.

MLA Formatting

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is one of the most common methods for formatting and citing research papers. It is mostly used in the humanities, whereas APA (Amercian Psychological Assocation) style is mainly used in the sciences. A third style, Chicago, is also popular. Which style you use depends on the subject matter of your research, and more importantly, the preference of your professor.

For the Works Cited page using MLA, there are two general guidelines to follow:

  1. Alphabetize the list of names by the last name of the authors (or editors); if a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.
  2. Do not indent the first line of each works cited entry, but indent any additional lines one–half inch (or five spaces). This technique highlights the names by which the list has been alphabetized.

Online Citation Maker - OSLIS

Electronic Sources

The documentation for electronic sources presented in this section is consistent with MLA's most recent guidelines, which can be found at

An entry for a nonperiodical publication on the web usually contains most of the following:

  1. Name of the author, compiler, director, editor, narrator, performer, or translator of the work.
  2. Title of the work
  3. Title of the overall web site, if distict from number 2
  4. Version or edition used
  5. Publisher or sponsor of the site
  6. Date of publication
  7. Medium of publication (web)
  8. Date of access

NOTE: In the past, MLA recommned including URLs of web sources in works–cited–list entries. Inclusion of URLs has proved to have limited value, however, for they often change, can be specific to a subscriber or a session of use, can be so long and complex that typing them into a browser is cumbersome and prone to transcription errors. You should include a URL as supplementary information only when the reader probably cannot locate the source without it or your instructor requires it. For the examples provided, some entries list the URL. For examples without the URL, see Additional Web Examples

When an internet address in a works cited entry must be divided at the end of a line, break it after a slash. Do not insert a hyphen.

Online Scholarly Project or Reference Database

For an online source accessed from within a larger scholarly project or reference database, begin with the author (if any) and title of the source, followed by any editors or translators. Use quotation marks for titles of short works such as poems and artilces; underline or italicize book and periodicals titles. Include publication information for any print version of the source before giving the title of the online project or database (underlined or italicized), followed by the author or editor of the project or database; the date of electronic publication (or latest update); page or paragraph numbers (if any); the name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the site (such as EBSCO); the date of access; and the electronic address, or URL, of the source in angle brackets.

Dickenson, Emily. "Hope." Poems by Emily Dickenson. 3rd ser. Boston, 1896. Project Bartleby Archive.
Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. Dec. 1995. Columbia U. Web. 2 Feb. 1998 <

"Gog and Magog" The Encyclopedia Mythica. Ed. Micha F. Lindemans. 2 Jan. 1998. Web. 31 Jan. 1998

To refere to an entire scholarly project, begin with the title of the project.

The Einstein Papers Project. Ed. Robert Schulmann. 9 Nov. 1997. Boston U. Web. 29 Jan. 1998

Personal or Professional Web Site

For a citation to a personal or professional web site, begin with the creator of the site (if available) and continue with the title of the site (or a description such as "Home page" if no title is available), the date of publication or of the latesed update, the name of any organization associated with the site, the date of access, and the URL.

Spanoudis, Steve, Bob Blair, and Nelson Miller. Poets' Corner. 2 Feb. 1998. Web. 4 Feb. 1998

Blue Note Records. 19 Mar. 1998. Blue Note Records. Web. 25 Mar. 1998 <>.

Online Book

For citations to books available online, inlcude all available information required for printed books followed by the date of access and the URL.

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. 1846. Web. 16 Mar. 1998 <gopher://>.

Article in an Online Periodical

When citing online articles, follow the guidelines for printed articles, giving whatever information is available in the online source. At the end of the citation, include the date of access and the URL.

Baucom, Ian. "Charting the Black Atlantic." Postmodern Culture 8.1 (1997): 28 pars. Web. 3 Feb. 1998

Romano, Jay. "Computers That Tend the Home." New York Times 14 Mar. 1998

Coontz, Stephanie. "Family Myths, Family Realities." Salon 12 Dec. 1997. Web. 3 Feb. 1998

Work from an Online Subscription Service

To cite a work from a personal subscription service such as America Online, give the information about the source followed by the name of the service, the date of access, and the keyword used to retrieve the source.

Sleek, Scott. "Blame Your Peers, Not Your Parents, Author Says." APA Monitor 29.1 (1998). America Online.
1 Mar. 1999. Keword: The Nurture Assumption.

For a source found in an online service accessed at a library, give the information about the source followed by the name of the service, the library, the date of access, and the URL of the service, if known.

Miller, Christian. "Cougars Reported in Tarzana, Woodland Hills." Los Angeles Times 25 Nov. 1997: Metro 1.
Electric Lib. O'Neill Library, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA. Web. 12 Mar. 1998

Additional Web Examples

Concerto Palatino, perf. "Canzon a 6 per l'Epistola." MLA, 25 Sept. 2007. Web. 15 May 2008.

"de Kooning, Willem" Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2008. Web. 15 May 2008.

Green, Joshua. "The Rove Presidency." The Atlantic Monthly Group, Sept. 2007. Web.
15 May 2008

"Maplewood, New Jersey." Map. Google Maps. Google, 15 May 2008. Web. 15 May 2008

"Six Charged in Alleged N.J. Terror Plot." WNBC, 8 May 2007. Web. 9 May 2007.

Tyre, Peg. "Standardized Tests in College?" Newsweek. Newsweek, 16 Nov. 2007. Web. 15 May 2008.



Basic Formatting

For most books, arrange the information into three units, each followed by a period and one space; (1) the author's name, last name first; (2) the title and subtitle, underlined or italicized; and (3) the place of publication, the publisher, and the date.

Tannen, Deborah. The Argument Culture: Moving from Debate to Dialogue. New York:
Random House, 1998.

Two or Three Authors

Name the authors in the order in which they are presented ont he title page; reverse the name of only the first author (last name).

Short, Kathy Gnagey, and Lois Bridges Bird. Literature as a Way of Knowing. York, ME: Stenhouse,


An entry for an editor is similar to that for an author except that the name is followed by a comma and the abbreviation "ed". for the "editor." If there is more than one editor, use the abbreviation "eds." for "editors."

Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. In Short: A Collection of Brief Creative Nonfiction.
New York: Norton, 1996.

Corporate Author

List the entry under the name of the corporate author, even if it is also the name of the publisher.

Bank of Boston. Bank by Remote Control. Boston: Bank of Boston, 1997.

Two or More Works by the Same Author

If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, use the author's name only for the first entry. For subsequent entries use three hyphens followed by a period. The three hyphens must stand for exactly the same name or names as in the proceeding entry. List the titles in alphabetical order.

Updike, John. In the Beauty of Lilies. New York: Knopf, 1996.

–––. Toward the End of Time. New York: Knopf, 1997.

Encyclopedia or Dictionary

Articles in well–known dictionaries and encyclopedias are handled in abbreviated form. Simply list the author of the article (if there is one), the title of the article, and the title of the reference work, the edition number, if any, and the date of edition.

"Sonata." Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1997.

Volume and page numbers are not necessary because the entries are arranged alphabetically and therefore are easy to locate.

If a reference work is not well known, provide full publishing information as well.

Work in an Anthology

Present the information in this order, with each item followed by a period: author of the selection; title of the selection; title of the anthology; editor of the anthology, preceded by "Ed." (meaning "Edited by"); city, publisher, and date; page numbers on which the selection appears.

Malouf, David. "The Kyogle Line." The Oxford Book of Travel Stories. Ed. Patricia Craig. Oxford:
Oxford UP, 1996. 390 – 96.

Articles in Periodicals

Article in a Monthy Magazine

In addition to the author, the title of the article, and the title of the magazine, list the month and year and the page numbers on which the article appears. Abbreviate the names of months except May, June, and July.

Kaplan, Robert D. "History Moving North." Atlantic Monthly Feb. 1997: 21+.

This example used "21+" because the article did not appear on consecutive pages. For articles appearing on consecutive pages, provide the range of pages, for example, 50–53.

Article in a Daily Newspaper

Begin with the author, if there is one, followed by the title of the article. Next, give the name of the newspaper, the date, and the page number (including the section letter). Use a plus sign (+) after the page number if the article does not appear on consecutive pages.

Knox, Richard A. "Please Don't Dial and Drive, Study Suggests." Boston Globe 13 Feb. 1997: A1+.

If the selection is marked with a number rather than a letter, handle the entry as follows:

Wilford, John Noble. "In a Golden Age of Discovery. Faraway Worlds Beckon." New York Times 9 Feb. 1997, late ed., sec. 1: 1+.

If an edition of the newspaper is specified on the masthead, name the edition after the date and before the page reference: eastern ed., late ed., natl. ed., and so on.

Unsigned Article in a Newspaper or Magazine

Use the same form you would sue for an article in a newspaper or a weekly or montly magazine, but begin with the title of the article.

"Marines Charged in Assault Case." Houston Chronicle 14 Feb. 1998: 6A.

Editorial in a Newspaper

Cite an editorial as you would an unsigned article, adding the word "Editorial" after the title.

"Health Risk on Tap." Editorial. Los Angeles Times 11 Feb. 1998: B6.